Common DNA Tests Used for Paternity Establishment
The following DNA tests are most commonly used for establishing paternity, directly or indirectly:
- Paternity Test - To verify the biological relationship between an alleged father and a child using DNA samples.
- Viability Test - To analyze an unusual biological sample to determine if it has enough viable DNA to use in a DNA relationship test. This test is frequently used when an alleged father or other tested party is missing, unavailable, or deceased.
- Grandparentage Test - To verify the biological relationship between grandparents and their grandchild using DNA samples. This test is often used to indirectly determine the paternity of a child when the alleged father is missing. In some states, grandparents are liable for grandchildren born to minor children.
If the necessary participants for any of these tests are missing or unavailable, several other tests can be used to identify relationships between children and their alleged fathers. These tests include:
- Genetic Reconstruction - To verify the biological relationship between alleged family members using DNA samples. Most often, this test is used in cases where a child's alleged parent is missing or deceased and immediate family members of the alleged parent are available for testing.
- Y-STR Test - To verify biological relationships between males, based on the Y chromosome.
- mtDNA Test - To determine if people are biologically related through the maternal genetic line.